Oxalate Urolithiasis

In the dog

Medical and Nutritional Considerations

Prevention is aided by the production of alkaline urine (pH 7.0-7.5), with a low specific gravity (SG 1.020) and reducing the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, sodium and protein. A urine pH consistently below 6.5 promotes urolith formation

Persistent urine pH readings outside the ideal range while feeding Canine u/d* is suggestive of (i) poor dietary compliance, and/or (ii) inability of the individual dog to appropriately alkalinise its urine

The feeding of bones or treats should be discontinued for dogs at risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. It is not acceptable to dilute therapeutic foods with regular dog food, rice or vegetables as this may negate the effectiveness of the preventative diet

If urine pH is consistently below 7.0 for dogs fed Canine u/d", the addition of potassium citrate is recommended. Start with an initial dose of 25mglkg BID with food, then titrate to effect

Ensure any concurrent UTI is adequately controlled

It is possible that a dog that initially forms Calcium Oxalate stones may experience chronic UTI, from which abundant struvite uroliths result
Interpretation of a quantitative analysis of recovered uroliths will assist in determining the best preventative approach. For many dogs in this situation, the prevention of calcium oxalate will take priority

Recommended Nutritional Management

Prevention - following surgical removal via cystotomy

Feed a Quality maintenance food for 10-14 days post surgery during recovery - eg Science Diet Canine Adult or Senior

After suture removal, feed Hill's Prescription Diet Canine u/d
Monitor pH after 2-3 days to ensure an average urine pH of7.0-7.5 and a dilute urine is achieved

Perform urinalysis fortnightly 2 to 3 times, then monthly for 3 months then 3 to 6 monthly as circumstances dictate, to ensure the urine is free of crystals, the specifIc gravity is 1.020 and the urine pH is 7.0 - 7.5
Radiography every 3 to 6 months may detect early growth of small stones
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs is a metabolic problem and tends to be highly recurrent